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Conservation of lawlessness in Poland

The third of my comments following Twilight of Democracy by Anne Applebaum, review: a querulous and flawed analysis of Europe by Philip Johnston in The Telegraph, 26 July 2020.


Lech Borkowski
31 Jul 2020 2:07AM

In September 2011, at the time when Anne Applebaum’s husband was Foreign Minister in the Donald Tusk government, Polish authorities launched an incredibly vicious operation against our family.

We have been targeted for years, but earlier provocations, although harmful, were not entirely successful. This time they decided to launch a very intense operation aimed initially at my wife, a pianist and piano teacher in the State School of Music in Zielona Góra. We monitored the operation’s progress and recorded its details in our letters to the authorities. This was state-sponsored lawlessness in full throttle. It contradicts Applebaum’s narrative about Poland.

As a result of this operation, we wrote many letters to the country’s top authorities. We pointed out numerous violations of law and our basic human rights. The government protected the immediate perpetrators and the associated lawlessness. In other words, the state and the criminal organisation is one and the same entity in Poland. Radek Sikorski served this criminal organisation for many, many years as well. He does this now as a Member of the European Parliament.

Eventually the authorities decided to remove us from our jobs. I was an associate professor of physics at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. We were both fired at the end of 2015. In case of my wife they manufactured fake medical statement, claiming that she suffered from unspecified ‘delusions’. The best piano teacher of the school was declared by the authorities unfit for work. A typical Communist method.

It was not a question of ‘if’ but ‘how’ we were to be liquidated.

I was the only faculty member at the University’s Department of Physics with a western PhD. The key distinction between me and the rest of the faculty is the fact of my parents’ staunch resistance to Communism and my full support of it. My father deserted from the Communist army with his entire company in 1945. My mother’s family provided food and shelter to Polish non-Communist resistance in the area occupied by the Soviet Union. I was possibly the only faculty member of a university in Poland, whose parents were prisoners of Communist concentration camps.

Applebaum’s narrative about the Law and Justice Party is false as well. I was a member of that Party from 2008-2010, when it was in ‘opposition’. I saw it from inside. It conducted no discussion and activities. For all practical purposes it was dead. There were party meetings and superficial discussions, but never anything real.

The Law and Justice provocative moves are grotesque and superficial. In reality, the lawlessness of the state has been invariant under the so-called ‘transition to democracy’ and is invariant under the change of governments. The overthrow of Communism was staged. Radek Sikorski’s legend of underground activity against Communism before he came to the UK is simply not true. It was fabricated.

Has Anne Applebaum ever told you that Adam Michnik, the leading ‘dissident’ in Poland during the 1970s and 1980s, is a son of a Communist convicted in the 1930s for acting against the Polish state on behalf of the Stalin’s Soviet Union? How did he transition from being part of the most privileged Communist youth to seemingly acting against the system? Or did he? Similarly, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, the allegedly first non-Communist PM in Poland in 1989, was earlier three-time member of the Communist ‘parliament, each time ‘elected’ with more than 95 percent of the vote.

Currently, I am working at a greengrocer’s in London. My wife is unemployed in Poland. Two professionals with the highest qualifications in their professions, who refused to lie, forge, and falsify, have been liquidated.

@LechSBorkowski

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You have been misinformed

My two comments on Twilight of Democracy by Anne Applebaum, review: a querulous and flawed analysis of Europe by Philip Johnston in The Telegraph, 26 July 2020.


Lech Borkowski
26 Jul 2020 7:04PM

Putting it mildly, you have been misinformed by both Anne Applebaum and her husband Radek Sikorski on Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe.

Radek Sikorski has been trained by Communist intelligence, probably the military branch, and secured a place at Oxford by Zbigniew Pelczynski, an Oxford professor on friendly terms with the Communists in Poland.

When I was about to leave the US at the end of my doctoral studies at the University of Florida, I was contacted by Radek Sikorski, who suggested that I participate in his team supporting the candidate in the upcoming presidential election in Poland. My initial response was positive, but I soon abandoned this idea without having met RS. Thank God.

Below I am including the letter my wife sent to Anne Applebaum on 22 May 2013. I collaborated in writing it. It tells you a completely different story to the one you are accustomed getting from your media outlets.

This is an English translation of the Polish original. You can also view it on our website at https://lsborkowski.com/pol/killing-the-soul-22-may-2013/ , where we present some of our texts associated with our project. The same text is available at at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330015944_Letter_to_the_Washington_Post_22_May_2013

I wrote the statement “Citizenship de jure and citizenship de facto” on 8 July 2014 and sent it to Radek Sikorski. It is available at

https://lsborkowski.com/pol/citizenship-de-jure-citizenship-de-facto-8-july-2014/ or at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329923338_Citizenship_De_Jure_and_Citizenship_De_Facto

He did not reply.

@LechSBorkowski

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22 May 2013

It is both interesting and disturbing that historians, sociologists, political scientists or journalists do not tell the truth about contemporary Poland. Even Poles themselves do not have the courage to face the truth. They do not have the courage to admit that they are flooded with lies.

[…]

The Communists worked hard over the years to perfect their killing ways. From the murder of the body they evolved towards the murder of the soul.

[…]

The loyalty to the mob, the falsifications and the active participation in the process of liquidating a human being are all rewarded with money, advance on the professional ladder, special privileges and total impunity.

[…]

The Solidarity movement was a skillfully manufactured lie.

I can now say with full certainty that there is no democracy in Poland. There has been no democracy here since 1939. We have only Potemkin-style democratic decorations. I live in the country governed by junta, where dignity and the social function of the human being are murdered. It is only natural that the result of such action by organized liquidation groups is not only the death of the soul but often also the death of the victim’s body. The perpetrators remain unpunished.

Today Poland is a country without natural social activity. The entire public life remains firmly under control of junta, who simulate a democratic system, but in reality destroy everyone whom they classify as an inconvenient person. Those who might pose a threat to junta’s hegemony are identified at a very early stage. Their lives and careers are often destroyed before they even have a chance to spread their wings. The know-how of the Communist secret police has not gone to waste. The hunt continues. Anyone who raises his or her head will be silenced or liquidated. The totalitarian state silences its opponents, as Hannah Arendt described in her book Eichmann in Jerusalem.

The Polish junta is a far more advanced product of totalitarianism than e.g. the Argentinian junta of the second half of the 20th century. In Argentina people were kidnapped and murdered secretly in isolated locations. In Poland people’s souls are murdered “on-site”, in exactly the same location where they live and work. Observers have an excuse to claim that nothing evil is taking place. This technique is far more sophisticated than the relatively ancient methods of an average Latin American junta.

My country, to which I returned with a great joy after traveling in Europe or the United States, is subject to Bolshevik rules. Contemporary Poland is actually a Communist concentration camp, in which the Communist perpetrators donned democratic uniforms. Certainly, number of political scientists must have at least asked themselves a question, how was it possible, that the totalitarian regime so easily and simply withdrew in 1989-1990. Was it really so, that the guards of the Communist concentration camp Poland simply got up from their desks, opened the camp’s gates and went home to live ordinary lives? And the next day they became pious Catholics and democrats? Was this a miraculous conversion? After the murder and expulsion of millions? After several decades of increasingly more perfect cruelty?

No, this is not true. The Communism did not fall. It was transformed, modernized and adapted to the new times. The banner of Communism was taken down and hidden away. But the dictatorship remained in place. In many ways the actions of the junta are bolder than before 1990.

[…]

Małgorzata Głuchowska


Lech Borkowski
26 Jul 2020 10:55PM

Applebaum’s narrative is a Communist one. You can see this in larger texts as well as in single sentences. Here is one example from the back cover of the Penguin’s edition of Iron Curtain:

“At the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union unexpectedly found itself in control of a huge swathe of territory in Eastern Europe.”

Try taking this sentence apart and try to understand what it tells you. A big red flashing light.

This sentence signals her allegiance to the Communist/Russian narrative. Superficially, she may criticize Russia and Communists for this or that, but the signs are clearly there. People and key facts are omitted when harmful to the Cause. Often, what is omitted is much more important than what is included in the text. You will notice it easily when browsing through the index of the Iron Curtain, an awful book written with an apparent intention to confuse the readers.

My parents, Polish citizens, were imprisoned for many years in Communist concentration camps in northern Russia in the Arkhangelsk region. My father deserted from the Communist army on 13 January 1945, one day before the military oath was taken. My mother was imprisoned in 1949. Both lived in eastern Poland, which was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939-1941 and again after 1944. These are Communist taboo subjects and do not appear in her texts as well. Writing about it would harm Communist and Russian interests.

@LechSBorkowski

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Sergei Khrushchev’s obituary in The Telegraph

My comment on Sergei Khrushchev, son of Soviet leader Nikita who ended up swearing allegiance to America – obituary in The Telegraph, 22 June 2020.


Both Sergei Khrushchev and his father Nikita Khrushchev lived at the center of the Soviet dictatorship, built it and served it to the best of their ability. Millions of people were tortured, killed, imprisoned in concentrations camps, expropriated, resettled forcefully, exiled, and had their life destroyed in other ways. And yet: look, no victims!

Obituary suggests that it was the Khrushchev family who have become some kind of victims of Communists. What a ridiculous nonsense.

My grandparents Klemens Ostrowski and his wife Elżbieta had a farm near the village of Buczany in the Brasław county in the north-east corner of pre-WWII Poland. Post-WWII, the Soviet Union occupied eastern Polands with a little help from Churchill and Roosevelt, as a result of the illegal Yalta deal. They were stripped of their Polish citizenship, their farm confiscated by the Soviet criminal state. Even their barn was taken apart, transported several kilometres to the newly installed Soviet collective, and reassembled there. My grandparents and four of their children were imprisoned in Communist concentration camps in various parts of the Soviet Union. My mother was imprisoned from 1949 to 1956 in the area of Arkhangelsk. She met my father there. My father was imprisoned in 1945.

This obituary falsifies history. It repeats the Communist narrative, presenting the genocidal Communist regime not as gigantic criminal organisation, but as an alternative way to seek progress and happiness. Why then The Telegraph does not describe Nazism as an alternative pursuit of happiness and prosperity?

Quote:

But Khrushchev insisted that his father would have understood. “He was in the Communist Party because he believed it would be best for all of us.”

Who are “us”? A Nazi leader and Party member would also say “He was in the Nazi Party because he believed it would be best for all of us.”

Here “we” does not refer to all people of course. It refers only to the subset of the population supporting the totalitarian dictatorship. The rest was eliminated in various ways. Nikita Khrushchev has not changed this policy by one bit. Only methods were altered.

In Poland, there is a similar story. Adam Gierek is the son of the former First Secretary (1970-1980) of the Communist Party Edward Gierek. He studied in Moscow and had a successful academic career. More recently he has been a senator in Poland and a Member of European Parliament. His membership in the totalitarian Communist Party was not an obstacle. Quite the opposite.

Back to my family. My grandparents stayed in their family house after returning from the camps. The Soviet occupiers imposed strict administrative ban on renovating the house and refused to connect the house to the electric grid throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, forcing my youngest uncle, the only person remaining at the house after the death of my grandparents, to move out. This is the genocidal policy at work.

My parents managed to move from zone occupied by the Soviet Union to the Communist Polish People’s Republic in 1956. Here they continued to be harassed by the Communists. Being a son of survivors of Communist concentration camps I had practically no chance to obtain a PhD in Poland, I went to the US in 1987 and received my PhD in Physics from the University of Florida in 1995. I returned to Poland and began working at the A. Mickiewicz University in Poznań. No effort was spared to make my life at work maximally miserable, frustrating, and to force me to quit. The aim was to make my coming to work at the University most traumatic and humiliating. I had to bring my own personal computer to work, because the university would not provide me with one.

Later on an extremely vicious campaign was unleashed simultaneously against my pianist wife, me, and our daughter, who was in elementary school at the time. Communist methods in full swing.

We were both eventually fired in 2015. The authorities fabricated a fake medical statement, that my wife suffered from unspecified delusions and had to be fired from the State School of Music in Zielona Góra, where she was the most successful piano teacher. We demanded truth, honesty, adherence to officially declared law, respect for human dignity, and common sense. We let the top authorities know about this. We also provided hundreds of MPs with information and documents. The perpetrators were protected and promoted. The prosecutor office refused to act and falsified the case.

I was forced to look for work abroad. I am currently working at a greengrocer’s in West London. My wife is unemployed now.

This obituary is one of many texts falsifying both history and contemporary situation. People from the core of the murderous totalitarian power are presented as the good guys who wanted to do good things. This is truly ridiculous.

@LechSBorkowski

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Prisoner of false narrative

Prisoners of History by Keith Lowe review — pulling down statues isn’t the answer by Richard Preston in The Times, June 20, 2020. Here is my comment on the book and its review in The Times.


I looked up the book at its publisher’s website and read a few pages about the Soviet military monument in Warsaw. I find the text being of poor quality, merely a retelling of an official story. The problem is that Poland is an epicentre of falsifications of both recent European history and contemporary politics.

First, the author would have to address the false ‘democratic transition’ of 1989-90. It was completely fake. To those unaccustomed to Communist lies, a lot of silly stories manufactured en masse by the Communists might ring true – they simply have no critical instruments to verify their veracity or even to ask proper questions. The main falsification is that the Communism collapsed. Just like that.

If the author bothered to look around, he would have found plenty to write and wonder about. Unfortunately, he did not. Hence, a very superficial and totally non-revealing story.

Just look at one of the central squares in Warsaw next to the Warsaw Centralna train station. It contains the monument to Joseph Stalin from 1953, called Pałac Kultury i Nauki, i.e. Palace of Culture and Science. It looks like a smaller version of a similar Soviet building in Moscow. It housed the central office of the Polish Academy of Science before 1990 and it houses it today. Remarkable continuity, isn’t it? Where is the supposed ‘end of Communism’ here?

The allegedly ‘nationalistic’ party of Prawo and Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice), which is in government since 2015 did not mind that offices of its MPs in Kołobrzeg (German: Kolberg) at the Baltic coast in the region of Pomerania were located for years at the Kniewski street (ulica Kniewskiego). Władysław Kniewski was a Communist assassin, 1902-1925, who together with two others volunteered to kill an agent of the Polish police embedded in the Communist movement. However, before their meeting with the police informer, they were stopped by two policemen in civilian clothes. They started shooting and wounded heavily one of the policemen. A chase ensued, in which other policemen and members of the public were involved. They were caught.

All three were tried, received a death sentence and were executed by shooting.

When the Soviet Union seized control in Poland after WWII, the three Communist volunteer assassins were specially honored. Streets were named after them. The place in Warsaw where their execution took place, was called Kniewski, Hibner and Rutkowski Park and a monument was unveiled in 1950.

Back to Kołobrzeg/Kolberg. Law and Justice MPs had an office at the Kniewski street. They didn’t mind the name and they have not tried to change it.

Quite a few street names were changed more than 25 years after the alleged ‘transformation’. The Law and Justice party existed for quite a long time before that moment, so why they have not raised the issue much earlier? I myself have been a member of the Law and Justice Party from 2008 to 2010 and I have never heard anyone proposing or demanding to change street names. I stopped being a member, when I saw that the party was completely phony.

When in May 2016 my wife and I rode through the streets of Krosno Odrzańskie (Crossen an der Oder in German) in what is now western Poland, we saw that many of them had Communist names. One of the longest was the Red Army Street. I recorded a video driving on it in both directions. It is available on Youtube and on Vimeo. I used a recording of Lenin’s 1919 speech from March 1919 as the audio track.

These are just couple of examples. There is plenty to see, if you can read. It seems that western scholars, journalists, and writers do not want to read. They are mainly interested in reinforcing the all-familiar narrative.

The narrative they are reinforcing, however, is completely wrong.

Now to the Katyń monument in Jersey City. Polish officers in Katyń and other sited of Soviet mass murder, were shot in the back of the head one by one by single shot from a hand gun. Bayonet was used by Polish troops in earlier wars and was symbolic in some ways, but it had nothing to do with the method of killing Poles in Katyń. This monument is quite clearly a Communist provocation. One can excuse simple servicemen of the failure to understand that they were backing the enemy project, when it was originally proposed and erected.

In my personal opinion, the person behind the project has likely followed instruction from Communist Warsaw. I can’t imagine any sane sculptor seriously trying to honor the murdered Polish officers with this sculpture. I emphasize that this is my personal opinion.

Did the book’s author notice, that in the centre of Warsaw, there is no monument to the Polish officers murdered in Katyń? There is the monument to Stalin instead.

One should also note that the Polish Museum of WWII was located in Gdańsk/Danzig several years ago. This move obviously follows the Communist narrative which tried to present German expansion as the main source of Polish problems in history and to use Gdańsk/Danzig as the centerpiece of this narrative. The Solidarity trade union was located by the Communists in Gdańsk as part of this grand narrative. There was nothing accidental about it.

The Museum’s natural and the only logical place is Warsaw of course. I haven’t noticed any significant protests over the Museum’s location coming either from Poland or from abroad. Instead, western scholars of Polish history and culture were involved in a fake row about the person of Museum’s director couple of years ago.

@LechSBorkowski

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Cast of characters

My second comment on Niall Ferguson’s farewell article in his Sunday Times column, My crystal ball missed Brexit but got Donald Trump, 24 May 2020. The first comment, Dizzy with success, was blocked by the paper.


My yesterday’s comment was blocked. Were my few critical words unbearable for this unabashedly self-promoting article in the old, well-established paper?

Was my satirical take on Niall Ferguson’s prophetical prowess with Joseph V. Stalin’s ‘dizzy with success’ Pravda article of 2 March 1930 considered inappropriate? Was the editor concerned about possible violation of copyrights to Stalin’s words?

As a historian, Niall Ferguson is trying to write history of the future before it happens. In the old days person trying to predict the future course of events was futurist. Now they call themselves forecasters or superforecasters in apparent analogy to those predicting tomorrow’s 15pc chance of rain.

The difference between predicting tomorrow’s rain and next year’s events is that weather is not so directly influenced by newspaper articles as is the narrative about the present and the future. Political and economic forecasting in popular media and government agencies is not neutral.

Take a look at the second part of the word ‘forecast’: cast. As in ‘cast of characters’. Think: narrative. Participants of the narrative. Forecasting is shaping and guiding the public narrative. It promotes certain characters, elevating their status, and eliminates others. It is definitely not a neutral activity.

One good example is Niall Ferguson’s article in The Wall Street Journal, 19 November 2011, about Europe in 2021, which was published in a modified form in The Sunday Times on 27 November 2011. Both fictitious and real-life characters are featured in this text. Among them is Radek (Radosław) Sikorski, Ferguson’s friend from Oxford, who was trained by Communist intelligence. Ferguson writes ‘Poland, under the dynamic leadership of Radek Sikorski, the former foreign minister’. This is not forecasting. This is casting.

Finally, I leave the last two paragraphs of my yesterday’s comment unchanged.

On November 3, 2019, Niall Ferguson wrote lots of nonsense about the so-called ‘collapse of Communism’. The concept of the ‘collapse of Communism’ belongs to Communist mythology. Communism has not collapsed. It was a mere change of clothes and an exercise in redecoration.

Although he is not alone in being terribly wrong, being one of the many who are terribly wrong should not be an excuse.

@LechSBorkowski

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Dizzy with success

Lech S Borkowski's comment following Niall Ferguson's article in The Sunday Times, 24 May 2020, was blocked
Lech S Borkowski’s comment following Niall Ferguson’s article in The Sunday Times, 24 May 2020, was blocked

My comment following Niall Ferguson’s article in The Sunday Times, 24 May 2020, was blocked.


Paraphrasing slightly Joseph V. Stalin’s article in Pravda, 2 March 1930, I would like to say that Niall Ferguson’s successes in the sphere of predicting the future are now being spoken of by everyone. Even his enemies are forced to admit that the successes are substantial. And they really are very great.

But the successes have their seamy side, especially when they are attained with comparative “ease”. Such successes sometimes induce a spirit of vanity and conceit: “I can achieve anything!”, “There is nothing I can’t do!” People not infrequently become intoxicated by such successes; they become dizzy with success, loose all sense of proportion and the capacity to understand realities; they show a tendency to overrate their own strength and to underrate the strength of the enemy.

By focusing on couple of his ealier predictions Niall Ferguson conveniently moves away from history and the failures of the historical folk in understanding and interpreting even the very recent events.

One might even say, that he is trying to write history of the future before it happens. Is he a historian or a futurist? Trying to be both perhaps? Can you be a good historio-futurist, if you get the most recent history completely wrong? I doubt it. But he not only seems to have no doubts, he even gets handsomely paid for it. Where is the ethics in all of this?

Interestingly, the ‘history of the future’ or ‘future history’ is equally appealing to Communists, people he claims to oppose. Hm…

On November 3, 2019, he wrote lots of nonsense about the so-called ‘collapse of Communism’. The concept of the ‘collapse of Communism’ belongs to Communist mythology. Communism has not collapsed. It was a mere change of clothes and an exercise in redecoration.

Although he is not alone in being terribly wrong, being one of the many who are terribly wrong should not be an excuse.

@LechSBorkowski

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The camp of social death

On February 23, 2020, The Sunday Times published an article by Andrew Holgate Holocaust novelists blur Nazi fact and fiction in bestsellers. Here is my comment.


Quote from the article:
In one of the novel’s most important scenes, the number he tattoos on the arm of his future wife is seen by several critics as being incorrect. The Auschwitz Museum has said the mistakes and “misinterpretations” in the book make it “dangerous and disrespectful to history”.

While agreeing that these mistakes, whether deliberate or not, are dangerous and disrespectful, I would like to point out that the Auschwitz Museum is also capable of acting in a dangerous and disrespectful way. The Museum did not invite Witold Pilecki’s son Andrzej and daughter Zofia, to the 70th anniversary of the Camp’s liquidation in 2015. Witold Pilecki was a Polish officer, who went to Auschwitz voluntarily, organised an underground resistance organisation there and sent reports about the Camp to the Polish resistance and the Polish government in exile in London.

At the same time, Museum issued an invitation to Rainer Hoess, 51, a grandson of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp commandant Rudolf Hoess, to participate in the 70th anniversary ceremonies. Rainer is a well-known anti-Nazi.

After WWII, Witold Pilecki was executed by the functionaries of the Communist dictatorship in 1948. This is clearly the reason behind refusing to invite Zofia and Andrzej Pilecki to the 70th anniversary. The concentration camp lives on under new leadership and with new guards. This is the camp of social death and elimination from history. The narrative is being actively managed and controlled.

@LechSBorkowski

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Bolshevik approach to history

My second comment on The Times view on Vladimir Putin’s comments about the Holocaust: History Lesson, January 24 2020.


Lech S Borkowski, comment on The Times 24 January 2020 op-ed article
Lech s Borkowski, comment on The Times 24 January 2020 op-ed article

Lech Borkowski

I remember a Bolshevik quote about history. It goes more or less like this: “We will ride the history’s horse to its death”. This is a rough translation of a quote which I remember in Polish. This phrase might have been used by Mayakovsky, the leading poet of early Soviet Russia.

About hundred years after the Bolshevik revolution the West still refuses to deal with the Bolshevik approach to history. History is not something that happens by itself and is written and told with limited manipulation only. Not at all. History is planned, organised and executed. Given sufficient resources, material, human and organisational, history can be planned and scripted just like a theatre play. Contents of entire archives can be planned. You can design tomorrow’s museums even before anything they will commemorate happens. After all, what is history? History is just a bunch of stories told over and over again. These stories cannot be allowed to be told by some random people with unpredictable consequences. You write these stories by organising, among other things, fake mass protests.

Having a good history is a strategic asset. This asset can be acquired piece by piece through organised action with a long-term planning. History can be conquered, controlled and managed in a way similar to conquering territory. In this case, the area of the war theatre is the territory of the human mind, its imagination and memory. By using the right tools you can train entire nations or religious groups to follow your historical narrative. And you can liquidate those, whose thinking cannot be controlled.(*)

The anniversary of the liquidation of the Auschwitz concentration camp is an unmissable opportunity for staging provocations.

Organising a controversy is a good way to program human minds. Few would remember an anniversary where everyone agreed and everyone was polite and predictably boring. Controversy makes it memorable. There are professional cadres whose job is to design a scheme of provocation and supervise its dynamics, injecting changes as required by the current situation.

The casual observer is supposed to get emotionally involved and choose voluntarily one of the sides of controversy. Just like in a film, one can select an actor, whose words and character feel closer to one’s heart. This choice is, however, a superficial one because it is not about character A or character B. It is about the narrative and its anchoring points.

@LechSBorkowski

(*) I am a physicist. In 2015, my wife and I were both expelled from our jobs at the State School of Music in Zielona Góra, and Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, respectively.